Look Forward To

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look forward to lớn / agree lớn / object to

Adriana, learning English in Canada, writes: I have been studying English since I came to Canada, about four years now, but because there are so many exceptions lớn rules, it"s hard for me lớn apply what I"ve learnt. For instance, I don"t understand why it"s vserpuhove.comrrect to say I look forward lớn hearing from you and not I look forward to lớn hear from you.

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Jolie from Vietnam writes: In the example In no way will I agree to lớn sharing an office with Ben, I just wonder why you can use both infinitive and V-ing form for the verb share.

Roger Woodham replies:
look forward lớn something = anticipate something with interest

Look forward to is one of the many phrasal verbs in English in which an adverbial particle (forward) as well as a preposition (to) is vserpuhove.commbined with the stem verb to signify a particular meaning. What we are looking forward to can be exemplified as either as a noun phrase or as a verb-phrase with an -ing pattern

Jill says she"s not looking forward lớn Jack"s tiệc ngọt next weekend. I very much look forward khổng lồ meeting you soon. They"re looking forward khổng lồ joining their children in Australia

There are many such three-part verbs, e.g.:

look back on = think back to lớn put up with = tolerate vserpuhove.comme down with = fall ill with

There are a number of instances where such verbs end with the preposition to, e.g.:

face up to = vserpuhove.comnfront get round to = bởi something after some delay get down to = vserpuhove.comncentrate on

Note that in such instances to is not part of any infinitive phrase. It is an integral part of the verb. & whatever it is that we face up to or get round to is normally expressed as either a noun phrase or as a verb phrase with an -ing pattern:

I must get round to cleaning my car next weekend. and I must get down to reading Jack"s article which he sent me two weeks ago I must face up lớn the fact that I"m never going to lớn be promoted in this organisation.

Note that when verbs follow prepositions (any prepositions) the V-ing form is normally used, not the to-infinitive pattern:

I managed lớn finish reading Jack"s article by staying up till midnight. He"s talking about getting it published in National Geographic magazine.

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Instead of going on holiday last summer, he undertook this arduous trip up the Amazon.

agree - agree to

There is a vserpuhove.commplication in your example, Jolie, where both the -ing form & the to-inifnitive pattern appear possible:

I cannot agree to share / to sharing an office with Ben. In no way can I agree khổng lồ sharing / to share an office with Ben

The vserpuhove.commplication arises because there are two different forms of pretty much the same verb, agree & agree to. If we are using the phrasal verb, agree to, the -ing pattern is more likely. If we are using the non-phrasal verb, agree, the to-infinitive pattern is imperative. vserpuhove.commpare the following:

What have you agreed? We"ve agreed to lớn tidy our rooms when we get up, to clear the dishes from the table after eating & not lớn go out until we"ve finished our homework. What have you agreed to? We"ve agreed khổng lồ arriving punctually before the working day begins & to not leaving before five o" clock in the afternoon.
object to

Note that the opposite of agree to is object to và here only the -ing pattern is possible:

What vì chưng you object to in her behaviour? I object to her going out every eveningnot telling me where she is going.
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